Posted on April 5, 2014


Renault’s Remi Taffin has said that the French manufacturer is a month behind its rival Mercedes, with Red Bull Racing’s Adrian Newey adding that, as a result, it will be “extremely difficult” for his team to catch Mercedes before it’s too late to save the championship. “We can clearly see that we are something like a month behind, ” said Taffin in the Bahrain paddock yesterday. “During the winter I would say (we were) a month or two (behind). “We really need to focus on this,” he added. “Obviously the fact that we have these back-to-back races is not that More…

Posted on March 21, 2014


As always on JA on F1 we like to bring the fans closer to the sport in many ways and after the first race of the new Formula 1 in Australia, we’ve analysed the performances of some of the leading teams to give a better picture of the relative pace at this early stage of the season. Thanks to JA on F1 technical adviser Mark Gillan, we have some pace charts which give a good idea of the relative speed of the cars and Mark has given us his thoughts on what it all means and what we can expect More…

Posted on February 27, 2014


Tomorrow, February 28th, is the deadline for the new hybrid turbo F1 power units to be homologated. This means that the engine makers, Mercedes, Ferrari and Renault have to send the FIA a sample engine and the specification of this engine and Energy Recovery System is then fixed for the season. It is clear from the testing so far that Mercedes and Ferrari are in a position to do this, but Renault has been playing catch up after suffering a range of problems with the energy storage side of its power unit. So what will happen next? Will Renault be More…

Posted on February 26, 2014


The final pre-season test begins tomorrow in Bahrain, giving teams just four more track days to prepare their cars for the new F1 season, which starts on March 14th with free practice in Melbourne. It is already clear that, with the radical changes in technical regulations this year, and cars now running 1.6 litre hybrid turbo power units, some teams are in better shape than others. For Red Bull and the other Renault powered teams, for example, it is a crucial test as they have done very limited running compared to their rivals. With this in mind there was a More…

Posted on February 5, 2014


Felipe Massa’s quote at the weekend about the new ‘brake-by-wire’ systems on the 2014 F1 cars taking some getting used to has sparked a lot of discussion on the JA on F1 site, with readers wanting to know more about what it is and how it works. Let’s start with an explanation from the Sauber F1 team, “The braking system concept is totally new, taking the form of a brake-by-wire system for the first time at the rear wheels. This has become necessary due to the significantly increased performance of the ERS, which requires much greater variations in rear wheel More…

Posted on January 26, 2014


We have now seen 2014 F1 cars launched by six of the 11 F1 teams, with Toro Rosso due to reveal its challenger – now powered by the same Renault engine as the sister Red Bull team – due to launch on Monday. Already we have seen lots of different interpretations of the radically different technical regulations, particular in the nose section of the car. So here is the initial feedback of JA on F1 technical adviser Mark Gillan, former chief operations engineer at Williams, Jaguar Racing and Toyota. McLaren MP4-29 McLaren are the first to release pictures of the More…

Posted on January 14, 2014


The controversial new rule for 2014 awarding double points for the last race is likely to have unintended consequences, like influencing the way that the smaller teams in F1 design the cars. This is one of six key points to look out for in 2014, according to JA on F1 technical adviser Mark Gillan. “The smaller teams could well completely change their design process in an attempt to secure these points, as it could make a significant difference to their constructor’s position. If I were running operations for one of the smaller teams I would definitely do it,” said Gillan, More…

Posted on August 6, 2013


Following on from criticism from Ferrari president Luca di Montezemolo that Mercedes’ form over the five races since its controversial Pirelli test in May damages the credibility of the championship, we’ve done a couple of graphs analysing the car’s race tyre performance over the last three events, with the help of JA on F1 technical adviser Mark Gillan. In the first graph we compare Lewis Hamilton’s lap times with those of Sebastian Vettel in the Red Bull and Kimi Raikkonen in the Lotus. The vertical axis is the lap time, (faster lap times towards the bottom, slower lap times higher More…

Posted on July 6, 2013


Pirelli motorsport director Paul Hembery has said today that the company is not seeking to shirk responsibility for the failures at Silverstone. Mid week the company issued a report on the events of the British Grand Prix and appeared to be loading the blame onto the teams for misusing the tyres, which didn’t go down too well among some of the teams. Hembery later issued a personal note saying that he did not seek to blame the teams for what happened at Silverstone and today he has spelled out where he sees Pirelli’s responsibilities lie. “We take responsibility for underestimating More…

Posted on May 21, 2013


This season we have seen how starts are almost as important as qualifying in setting up a driver for a good result. Crucial places gained off the line by Alonso in the Spanish Grand Prix or Raikkonen in the Australian Grand Prix, for example, set them up for their wins in those respective races. Starts at Monaco make a huge difference; last year 13 cars ended the opening lap in a different position from their grid slot. So how is it done? What is the secret of a good start? JA on F1 technical adviser Mark Gillan provides the answer. More…

Posted on May 1, 2013


Fernando Alonso goes into his home Grand Prix at Barcelona next weekend looking to bounce back from the disastrous Bahrain Grand Prix in which he lost a chance of victory due to a failure on the Drag Reduction System rear wing. It means that after four rounds of 19, he now lies 30 points behind title rival Sebastian Vettel. The fallout from the DRS failure is interesting. According to a statement from Ferrari, “Analysis revealed that the problem was caused by the breakage of a mechanical component within the system. It’s the first problem of its kind on this system More…

Posted on April 8, 2013


After the first two Grands Prix the teams have had a couple of weeks to prepare for the next pair of races in China this weekend and then Bahrain the following week. In terms of development, new parts will be coming to many of the cars for these races, but one innovation which many will be working to perfect is the FRIC suspension system, which has helped Lotus and Mercedes for far. FRIC stands for “Front and Rear-Interconnected” system, which links the front and rear suspension using hydraulics with the aim of improving ride stability. This helps to give the More…

Posted on February 22, 2013


The four day test at Barcelona ended today with rain, but the three previous days gave the teams a chance to learn more about the performance of their new cars and especially about the way they work on the new Pirelli tyres. While it is still a bit early to say too much in terms of who is fastest in outright pace, as the definitive aerodynamic packages will only come onto the cars in the final test next week, we can nevertheless look at some details of long run performance, which shows us who is looking good. Below you can More…

Posted on February 15, 2013


Of all the areas within F1 which arouse controversy and debate, perhaps none is as central as the penalties handed out – or not – by the FIA race stewards. The stewards are charged with assessing on track misdemeanours and punishing drivers accordingly; Grosjean, Maldonado, Hamilton, Petrov and others have all been on the receiving end of penalties in recent years. But today the FIA has released some details of how those decisions are reached. An extract from a fascinating article in the FIA’s new AUTO magazine, sheds light on what the Federation calls “cyber stewarding”. Fans expect the stewards More…

Posted on February 9, 2013


The first F1 test of the 2013 season at Jerez provided little in the way of concrete pointers for the season that lies ahead; we do not know who is favourite for pole in Melbourne yet. But one would not expect to at this stage, as it was only the first test and the cars will change a lot before the season proper starts again with Melbourne qualifying on March 16. Many of the cars started the week looking like 2012 models, but the wind tunnel models will look quite different already. However, it is possible to read some trends More…

Posted on February 1, 2013


Ferrari launched its car, the F138 in Maranello today. The team made it very clear that it intended to start the season strongly, unlike last year, where it played catch up to the McLaren and Red Bull cars in particular. In overview, the Ferrari F138, as presented at the launch, is similar in concept to last year’s model and does not show as many detailed changes as the McLaren, released yesterday. The stepped nose has gone, which is eye catching, but not hugely significant. The main work appears to have gone into the rear of the car and there is More…

Posted on December 27, 2012


On a technical level there were some interesting innovations on the cars this year as the F1 teams and engineers worked hard to get around regulation changes. The most significant change was the governing body, the FIA, wanting to restrict the practice of exhausts blowing into the diffuser area of the floor. During 2011 teams had adopted increasingly extreme solutions and this had resulted in huge gains in down force. Red Bull was dominant in 2011 because it optimized this practice. For 2012, engines were not allowed to be mapped in such a way that they continued to pump out More…

Posted on November 25, 2012


One man who will be keeping everything crossed this afternoon is Remi Taffin, from Renault Sport, hoping that the new specification alternators do not fail and affect the outcome of the world championship. Vettel lost a victory in Valencia to an alternator failure and suffered another in Monza, along with Romain Grosjean. The failure on Mark Webber’s car in Austin sent alarm bells ringing for Sebastian Vettel’s title deciding season finale, but that was the last of the oldest specification V1 units; this weekend all Renault powered teams are using Version 3 of the unit, which features a new design More…

Posted on October 15, 2012


On the same day that Red Bull’s daredevil Felix Baumgartner went faster than the speed of sound in a free-fall parachuting stunt, most of Sebastian Vettel’s rivals must have felt that they too were witnessing a man disappearing away from them at undiminished speed. Vettel’s performance in Korea, like the one in Japan a week ago, restored him to the top of the drivers’ championship in emphatic style and the first 1-2 finish of the season underlined that Red Bull is now back where it was in 2011, taking front row lock-outs in qualifying, with Vettel controlling the race from More…

Posted on October 7, 2012


It’s not often that an innovation on an F1 car slips through without being noticed at a Grand Prix, but the talk of the Japanese Grand Prix was the double DRS device on the rear wing of the Red Bull, which had actually been on the car in Singapore. The idea is a simple variation on something tried by Lotus this year, to shed even more drag than a standard DRS wing. Lotus have a passive system and are yet to be able to qualify and race with theirs as they have problems getting the aero rebalanced once the device More…

Posted on September 25, 2012


The constant push for Innovation in F1 always needs to be tempered with the requirement for the cars to be reliable. And it’s also vital in a fast evolving competition like F1 that any development steps the teams bring to the cars do actually provide the boost in performance they are intended to. In Singapore we saw both sides of this as McLaren’s Lewis Hamilton suffered a gearbox failure and lost what looked like a certain race win, which would have allowed him to close the gap on championship leader Fernando Alonso. It was the fourth retirement on technical grounds More…

Posted on August 20, 2012


There was an interesting story in yesterday’s Mail on Sunday about an innovative new use in the medical world for the F1 electronic control unit, the “brain” of an F1 car. As a result of a chance conversation between a McLaren engineer and a paediatrician, Birmingham Children’s Hospital has been trialling the ECU in a children’s intensive care ward; the idea is that the F1-derived unit can measure all the key signs from the child, sense trends and detect developing problems earlier than the electronics previously used by the NHS. The unit normally measures oil pressures, brake temperatures and the More…

Posted on July 28, 2012


“F1 is all about innovation” – Ross Brawn, AMG Mercedes F1 team principal We are delighted to launch a new section of the JA on F1 site, aimed at bringing fans closer to the sport and dedicated to the very heartbeat of F1: Innovation. Research has shown that F1 fans see Innovation as one of the sport’s USPs and a key area of interest. Innovation puts puts the “Wow Factor” into F1. The cars are remarkable as is the pace of their development. F1 is real life on fast forward, it’s the speed of thought and innovation that really sets More…

Posted on July 27, 2012


Renault Sport’s Rob White has put out a document this evening which looks at the Red Bull engine mapping intrigue of the last week and explains Renault’s side of the story. Following intervention from the FIA technical staff in German and a subsequent clarification of the rules, Renault has been obliged to go back to pre-Germany torque maps on the Red Bull cars. Here White explains what the fuss is all about: What is a driver torque map? The driver torque map represents the torque requested by the driver as a function of engine speed and accelerator pedal position. What More…

Posted on July 27, 2012


Red Bull believes that its competitiveness will not be harmed by the FIA’s clarification on engine mapping rules, which closes the grey are that the Milton Keynes team was using in Germany. Both the FIA technical staff and rival teams believed that Red Bull had an advantage both in traction and aerodynamics in Germany from an engine map which changed the amount of torque the engine produced at medium revs. Although FIA technical delegate Jo Bauer flagged up his findings as a contravention of the rules, the stewards let Red Bull race on Sunday, but following meetings this week a More…

Posted on July 23, 2012


F1 technicians are always in search of detailed innovations, which will give a competitive edge over their rivals, especially where the rules are not clearly worded. At Hockenheim this weekend at the German Grand Prix, we saw an episode where an innovation from Red Bull and its engine partner Renault was allowed through because it was not covered by the rules, so even though the FIA’s own technical delegate Jo Bauer, felt he had found something in the engine mapping which was not allowed, when he referred it to the race stewards on Sunday they felt they had no choice More…

Posted on July 14, 2012


The 2012 F1 in Schools World Finals are to be held in Abu Dhabi from 29th October to 31st October to coincide with the nation’s fourth Grand Prix. It is the eighth time that the prestigious event has taken place, and this year’s host could not be more fitting with the Yas Marina Circuit and Ferrari World Abu Dhabi as a very suitable back drop. The F1 in Schools challenge was set-up in 1999, aiming to make the teaching of engineering and technology more exciting for young people. They aim to stimulate the notion of team work and creativity in More…

Posted on July 4, 2012


Formula 1 will move into a more environmentally-friendly era when the next generation engine formula is introduced in two years’ time and amid on-going attempts by teams to improve their own sustainability and efficiency Lotus has unveiled its new solar-powered simulator building. The construction of the new state-of-the-art race facility adjacent to the main building at its Enstone base, which has been fully operational for the past few months and was revealed to the media this week, has been used as a platform to further reduce the team’s dependency on traditional energy sources, which has been ongoing since the Genii More…

Posted on May 30, 2012


Every now and then an F1 team puts out a video that really gets you thinking. Sauber has issued a video which gives a really good insight into how all the technology and components are packaged into an F1 car. They’ve done something very innovative: cutting a car in half, so you see exactly how the engine, the fuel cell and even the driver fit in. Everything is about getting the weight low to the ground. The driver’s backside is only 10mm off the track surface, for example! Sergio Perez lends a hand to show how unnatural the position of More…

Posted on May 18, 2012


“Formula 1 is all about innovation,” (Ross Brawn, Team Principal Mercedes) There’s a lot going on behind the scenes in F1 at the moment, with the preparation of the new powertrains, which are set to come in under new rules for 2014. These feature small capacity 1.6 litre turbo engines with a high degree of hybrid energy regeneration, stored electrically. There are over 120 sensors on an F1 car and managing the data and control systems is the Electronic Control Unit, which is designed and manufactured for F1 by McLaren Electronic Systems. In Barcelona at the weekend MES and its More…

Posted on November 3, 2011


The performance of the Toro Rosso cars at the weekend underlined how much progress the team has made in the second half of the season. But where is the boost coming from and is there a back story to it? Jaime Alguersuari and Sebastian Buemi both qualified in the top ten in India and Alguersuari raced strongly to another points finish. In the last five races the team has scored 29 points, while rivals Sauber in the same period have scored six and Force India 19. Since Suzuka in particular the Toro Rosso has been making huge strides. In Singapore More…

Posted on June 12, 2011


The Formula 1 teams have been on notice for a few weeks that the practice of “hot blowing” and “cold blowing” exhaust through the diffusers is to be banned and yesterday the FIA confirmed that this would take effect from Silverstone onwards. Meanwhile the whole concept of blown diffusers will be banned in 2012 as new rules will insist that the exhausts exit out of the back of the car, as in the past. The Technical Working Group, which consists of the FIA’s Charlie Whiting and engineers from all the teams, will meet this week to decide exactly how to More…

Posted on May 21, 2011


Further to the post earlier in the week about why the FIA is looking to clamp down on the way engines blow exhaust gases over the diffuser even when the driver lifts off the throttle, it was interesting to hear Charlie Whiting’s view on it last night. This is the second time this season that the FIA, now under a different press management team, has sat Charlie down and got him to give a media briefing. He has done a briefing for broadcasters at the start of each season for some years, but this is something to be encouraged. As More…

Posted on April 21, 2011


The first three races have given us much to reflect on in terms of the new style of racing F1 now provides, but there are some fascinating details emerging too about the relative performance of the cars. One of the things to catch the eye has been the relative pace of the Red Bull and the McLaren in qualifying and in the race. And it’s not just about who has the newest tyres. When you look at it closely you see that there is reason to feel very excited about the competition between the two cars this season. At the More…

Posted on April 20, 2011


There’s a very interesting story on Reuters featuring quotes from Williams chairman Adam Parr about the 2013 engine plans. In light of recent comments from those who are against the move away from V8s towards a ‘greener’ engine, including Bernie Ecclestone and Luca di Montezemolo, Parr says that there is no going back on the direction of travel. He also makes a point I’ve not heard before that with the 2013 engines, when the car is in the pit lane, it will be running on pure electric only, a very interesting step and quite a message, if you think about More…

Posted on March 20, 2011


As a keen recreational cyclist, I love the story of McLaren working with British cycling champion Mark Cavendish and the Specialized cycle brand to produce a killer road bike on which he can compete this season in the great cycling classic events. It had a winning debut with Cavendish’s team mate Matthew Goss this weekend. Road bikes are all about being light and stiff at the same time. The S Works McLaren Venge, as it is called, is made using state of the art carbon fibre layering techniques and the frame weighs just 930 grammes! Cavendish who has been 15 More…

Posted on July 2, 2010


Ferrari have clarified that when they speak about a third car, they are not talking about a car which would be run by the Scuderia, but one which they would make available to a new team, such as ART GP, should they win the 13th franchise for 2011. Speaking at the FOTA Fans Forum, powered by Santander, Ferrari spokesman Luca Colajanni said that “We would give them a competitive car, unless it is the one from last year.” The suggestion that test sessions, such as the one which used to take place at Silverstone, should return and give the fans More…

Posted on June 28, 2010


This weekend’s European Grand Prix at Valencia is a significant event in the story of the season from a technical point of view as it was the race where many teams unveiled a device which copies the Red Bull’s “blown diffuser”.

Last year three teams started the season with a double diffuser and, after establishing the legality of it, the rest of the field was forced to follow suit, including Red Bull. This year’s “must haves” so far have been the McLaren F Duct wing and now the blown diffuser. Red Bull is the pioneer and Mercedes, Ferrari and Renault have followed them this weekend. McLaren and Force India are due to follow at Silverstone.

On the grid this season the Red Bull mechanics have been carefully masking the diffuser from view. Although they do have something interesting to hide, in F1 this is often a bluff, indicating that the most interesting part of the car is somewhere else, but they want you to focus on the diffuser!

A blown diffuser is basically a way of using the exhaust gases to interact with the diffuser, which sits at the back of the car at the end of the floor. There are two main purposes for this;

* to try to move the wake from the rear wheels outwards where it will cause less disturbance

* to re-energise the low pressure air at the very back of the diffuser to create more rear downforce.

Rear downforce is important for driver confidence, if the driver feels good rear end stability he will push harder, so the gain on the stopwatch from this kind of development is often not what a simulator tells you it will be, but what the driver actually delivers from it.

The irony is that blown diffuser is not a new concept, unlike F Duct wings or double diffusers. Renault had one in the early 1980s, Frank Dernie put one on the Williams of Nigel Mansell in the mid 1980s and they were common from 1985 onwards. Adrian Newey’s team at Red Bull didn’t invent it, they revived it. The early ones were crude in that the rear of the car often became less stable when the driver lifted off the throttle. Everyone knows a but more about the science now.

They went out of the sport in the mid 1990s due to a change of wording in the rules, but Newey felt that the current rules would make it worth trying again.

The blown element operates independently of the “double” element of the diffuser and whereas double diffusers are banned from next season, the blown diffuser is here to stay.


The Ferrari’s exhaust exits have been moved from the high exit in the top bodywork, which they pioneered in the early 2000s, to the low exit near the floor to feed the diffuser. They stop slightly shorter than the Red Bull ones.

Low exhausts heat everything up in the area behind them and there is a risk here. Less widely reported, there was a new Ferrari gearbox this weekend, only on Felipe Massa’s car, designed to raise the pick-up points of the lower wishbone, in order to keep it away from the hot gases from the low exhausts.

Keeping temperatures under control is important and it was intersting to see a series of red stripes on the rear side section of the Ferrari diffuser. These stripes are of a special paint, which changes its colour in relation to the different temperature of the surface where its applied. In this way the Ferrari engineers could see which part of the diffuser reaches too high a temperature due to the hot gases directly blowing on them.

Ferrari’s update also includes new cooling ideas in the radiators and bodywork for the series of warm weather races coming up in the summer, as they have had problems with the engines in hot countries earlier this season.

This is an important update for Ferrari, who started the season as the pace setters but then lost ground as they got bogged down with developing the F Duct rear wing at the cost of other avenues. Meanwhile McLaren, Mercedes and Renault all stole a march on them.


Renault also had significant upgrades, including the blown diffuser. In this illustration by our technical artist Paolo Filisetti, you can see the old style high exhausts at the top and the new low style ones at the bottom.

Renault continue to push hard, they brought the 22nd iteration of their front wing to Valencia, the ninth race of the season.


And finally Lotus had a good qualifying session in Valencia, with Jarno Trulli the fastest of the new teams, increasing the margin over the other new teams to 1.4 seconds. That said the gap to the slowest of the established teams, ironically Kobayashi’s Sauber, had also grown to over a second.

One key update for Lotus this weekend was a new front wing solution, which owes a lot to design ideas on last year’s Toyota. Many of the engineers at Lotus came from Toyota so this is not altogether surprising.

Posted on May 17, 2010


This weekend the teams faced up to the challenges of the Monaco Grand Prix circuit, one of the most famous but also most difficult circuits on the calendar.

Monaco is a unique circuit and calls for some particular details in the technical preparation of the cars, which you will not find anywhere else.

The main one is the steering lock, which needs to be 21 degrees in order to get round the Loews hairpin. Normally an F1 car has a steering lock of 17 degrees.

It is possible to run a standard steering lock and still make the turn, but engineers tell me that it is around 3/10ths of a second slower, so everybody runs the extended steering range.

The brake calipers get quite hot here so there is extra ducting to them. Some of the new teams found that they had not factored in enough cooling and struggled in the race.

The other point to make is that the cars use less fuel to cover the race distance here. Around 125 kilos instead of the 160 they use at many tracks.

And there are quite a few wrong assumptions, such as the idea that you need to run the suspension soft. In fact very stiff set ups can work very well in Monaco. Look at slow motion shots of Robert Kubica attacking the kerbs and you’ll see what I mean.


Monaco is unusual because you need very little entry stability to corners, all the braking is straight. Then you need to be able to turn without understeer. If you can manage that then traction comes because car is turned and pointing straight. Traction in a straight line has a significant effect on lap time, so a rearward weight distribution is beneficial. But there is a trade-off because this can add rear tyre wear, which is often a problem in the race, particularly on the super soft tyre as we saw last year here.

New tech on the cars
There were not many technical updates on view this weekend, more Monaco specific details looking for extra downforce and traction.


Ferrari did not use its drag reducing (F Duct) rear wing here but they did have an additional couple of winglets placed one each side of the shark fin.

This was done to increase the downforce generated at the level of the rear axle so to improve the traction on this very slow circuit. The wing angle was of course at its maximum figure both front and rear.

Ferrari team principal Stefano Domenicali revealed this weekend that the F Duct rear wing needs some work before its reintroduction in Turkey because, although it gave the team the fastest car through the speed traps, the team found in Spain that it took overall downforce away from the car and this is a handicap in competition with the Red Bull.

Red Bull’s technical wizardry
Red Bull had many teams scratching their heads after qualifying almost one second clear of the rest in Spain. Again in Monaco the margin of pole position was 3/10ths of a second, which is a lot. The team does not yet have a drag reducing rear wing and its Renault engine is considered not as powerful as the Mercedes. This meant that it was 20th through the speed trap on Saturday, some 9km/h down on the Ferraris. However it made up for that in its speed around the corners, thanks to its high level of downforce.

The secret of the Red Bull is the multiple little details which ensure that the bodywork of the car is optimised to work with the airflow that comes off the front wing and gives the massive diffuser the best chance to function. Red Bull were making microscopic changes to the front wings in Spain, adding a tiny gurney flay to the top element in practice to fine tune this.


The bodywork at the rear of the car is incredibly slender and low it is designed to clean up the airflow. The exhausts have been repositioned low and the technical team has introduced small slots just in front of the rear wheels, all tiny details to optimise the car. The result is a well balanced, aerodynamically efficient missile, perfectly in tune with itself.

Mercedes revert to shorter wheelbase
Mercedes reverted to the standard wheelbase on its car for Monaco, after extending it by 5cm in Barcelona. The shorter wheelbase is more suitable for the dynamic demands of the tight circuit. The longer wheelbase is designed to give the car more of a range of options on weight distribution.

Mercedes will revert to the longer wheelbase for the next Grand Prix in Turkey.

Posted on May 5, 2010


Among the teams bringing updates to Barcelona the ones likely to make the biggest gain are the new teams – because they are coming from the furthest back. In the case of Lotus their entry for 2010 was only accepted in September last year and they had one month to finalise the design before going into production, in order to make the pre-season tests. They put out a fairly conservative car for the opening races, always aiming at a major upgrade package for Barcelona. And technical director Mike Gascoyne says that a gain of around 1.5 to 2 seconds per More…



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