Pat Symonds has joined Williams as chief technical officer and will start work with the Grove-based team next month.
The 60-year-old received a ban from the sport for his role in the 2008 Singapore Grand Prix crash-gate scandal while working for Renault.
He returned with Marussia in 2011 as a technical consultant under the terms of the ban which expires this year and will start work with Williams, who have yet to score a point this season in nine races, on August 19.
Williams also announced that current technical director Mike Coughlan has left the team with immediate effect.
Symonds said: “Williams is a team steeped in success and engineering excellence and I’m honoured to be asked to play a role in returning the team to its rightful place at the pinnacle of Formula 1.
“Sir Frank, [chief executive] Mike [O'Driscoll] and [deputy team principal] Claire [Williams] have put in place the foundations for success and I’m immensely excited to begin this new challenge.”
Team principal Sir Frank Williams added: “I’m delighted that Pat is joining the team. His technical capabilities and sporting successes speak for themselves and I’m sure that his knowledge and leadership will contribute considerably to the success that all of us at Williams are working hard to achieve.”
Williams group chief executive officer Mike O’Driscoll said: “Pat brings unrivalled technical and managerial skills in addition to a proven ability to deliver on track results.
“Our commitment to return Williams to winning ways is absolute and this appointment is yet more evidence of our collective desire to return the team to the position it deserves.”
Marussia said they would announce plans “for the continued development of its growing technical operation in due course”.
Marussia team principal John Booth added: “We have some very talented design and engineering groups in place who have achieved great things over the past few seasons and who are excited about maintaining our current positive trajectory, boosted of course by our new powertrain partnership with Ferrari.
“We would like to thank Pat for the contribution he has made to the development of that structure. We look forward to announcing plans for our continued growth when it is appropriate to do so.”
Symonds has worked in Formula 1 for 30 years, building a great reputation as an engineer. He worked with Ayrton Senna at Toleman in 1984 and then Michael Schumacher at Benetton during which time the team won two drivers’ titles and one constructors’ title.
Two more drivers’ titles and two constructors’ titles followed when he moved to Renault, working with Fernando Alonso.
Of Coughlan’s departure, Williams said in a statement: “The team thanks him for the significant contribution he has made since 2011 and wishes him well in his future endeavours.”